Stationary Power Potential Applications
In 2015, combined retail sales of electricity in Connecticut amounted to approximately 29 million megawatt-hours (MWh) for the residential, industrial, transportation, and commercial sectors. Connecticut’s load growth is projected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 1.19 percent over the next ten years. In addition, retirements of older, less efficient generation facilities, which may total approximately 740 megawatts (MW) of capacity, between June 2016 and June 2018, may put additional pressure on the electric grid. To meet this current and projected demand, Connecticut’s residents rely on both in-state resources and imports of power.
Fuel cell technology has high value and opportunity to meet grid needs and to replace older generation facilities with high efficiency generation located directly at the customer’s site. Distributed generation will increase efficiency, improve end user reliability, provide opportunity for combined heat and power (CHP), and reduce emissions. Targets for CHP distributed generation (DG) include schools, hospitals and other mission critical facilities.
Map of existing and approved fuel cell projects in Connecticut
As oil and other non-sustainable hydrocarbon energy resources become scarce, energy prices will increase and the reliability of supply will be reduced. Government and industry are now investigating the use of hydrogen and renewable energy as a replacement of hydrocarbon fuels in the transportation section, which accounts for 32 percent of Connecticut’s total energy consumption. As these system sizes and applications increase efficiency will increase resulting in more favorable economics and increased reliability. Targets for FCEV deployment and hydrogen infrastructure development include public/private fleets, bus transit, and specialty vehicles. Zero emission FCEVs could replace existing conventional fleet vehicles in Connecticut. FCEVs have advantages over conventional technology and can reduce price volatility, decrease dependence on oil, improve environmental performance, and provide greater efficiencies, as follows:
- Replacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles, light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transit buses with FCEVs could result in annual CO2 emission reductions (per vehicle) of approximately 10,170, 15,770, and 182,984 pounds per year, respectively.
- Replacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles, light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transit buses with FCEVs could result in annual energy savings (per vehicle) of approximately 230 gallons of gasoline (passenger vehicle), 485 gallons of gasoline (light duty truck) and 4,390 gallons of diesel (bus).
- Replacement of gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles, light duty trucks, and diesel-fueled transit buses with FCEVs could result in annual fuel cost savings of approximately $885 per passenger vehicle, $1,866 per light duty truck, and $17,560 per bus.
Automakers are now making plans to comply with a ZEV program, which is modeled after the California ZEV Action Plan. Eight (8) states have committed and signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) requiring large-volume automakers to sell approximately 3.3 million ZEVs between 2018 and 2025, 1.24 million of which are defined as “ZEVs (Electric and/or Hydrogen Fuel Cells)”. Additionally, a 2012 Preliminary Study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) projects deployment of approximately 117,000 to 205,000 FCEVs in the Northeast region by 2025. Automakers have indicated that they plan to introduce hydrogen FCEVs by 2015. As one of the eight states that has signed this MOU, Connecticut has the potential of deploying approximately 80,000 FCEVs by 2025. The expected result of this deployment will be high efficiency vehicles that require less fuel and produce very low or zero tailpipe emissions.
Light/Medium Duty Vehicle Fleets
There are over 11,725 passenger fleet vehicles classified as non-leasing or company owned vehicles in Connecticut. Passenger vehicles at transportation hubs for fleets are good candidates for hydrogen fueling and the use of FCEVs because they mostly operate on fixed routes or within fixed districts and are fueled from a centralized station. As illustrated in the “Connecticut Market Potential for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Transportation Applications 2017,” clusters of fleet vehicles in Connecticut are located primarily in the Hartford, New Haven, Wallingford, and Stamford areas.
There are approximately 921 transit buses that provide public transportation services in Connecticut. Although the efficiency of conventional diesel buses has increased, these vehicles have the greatest potential for energy savings by using high efficiency fuel cells. Fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs) have an average fuel economy of 5.47 miles per kilogram of hydrogen, which equates to 6.18 miles per diesel gallon equivalent. The average fuel efficiency of conventional diesel transit buses is approximately 3.6 miles per gallon. The use of FCEBs may require: 1) fueling infrastructure to be co-located with the FCEB storage facilities, 2) redundancy of fuel supply, 3) generally accepted fuel measurements & certifications, and 4) an established track record for up-time performance. A transit bus powered by fuel cell technology, operated on hydrogen from renewable sources, could displace approximately 96 metric tons of CO2 and approximately 90 pounds of NOX emissions, annually. In addition, the use of hydrogen has the potential to reduce diesel fuel use by approximately 9,444 gallons per vehicle, per year.
Specialty vehicles, such as material handling equipment, airport tugs, street sweepers and wheel loaders, are used by a variety of industries, including manufacturing, construction, mining, agriculture, food, retailers, and wholesalers. Batteries that currently power some equipment for indoor use are heavy and take up significant storage space while only providing up to six (6) hours of run time. Fuel cell powered equipment has zero emissions, can be operated indoors, may last more than twice as long (12-14 hours) before refueling, can be refueled quickly, and eliminates the need for battery storage and charging rooms. Fuel cell powered material handling equipment is already in use at dozens of warehouses, distribution centers, and manufacturing plants in North America. Large corporations that are currently using or planning to use fuel cell powered material handling equipment include CVS, Coca-Cola, BMW, Central Grocers, and WalMart.
Hydrogen refueling stations will be required to support FCEVs including FCEV fleets, buses, material handling equipment, etc. Hydrogen refueling can be developed privately or publically depending on usage. While costs for hydrogen refueling infrastructure could range from $1,000,000 – $3,000,000 per station, it is possible that construction of these stations could be backed by private sector financing or developed publicaly in conjunction with high efficiency ZEV fleets. H2USA and the Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) are currently developing hydrogen infrastructure models for financing and development to serve projected FCEV fleets. Potential sites for development include existing refueling stations, but new potential sites are also possible.
Fuel cells can be used to power a variety of portable devices, from handheld electronics such as cell phones and radios to larger equipment such as portable generators. Other potential applications include laptop computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and handheld video cameras-almost any application that has traditionally used batteries. These fuel cells have the potential to last more than three times as long as batteries between refueling. In addition to these smaller applications, fuel cells can be used in portable generators, such as those used to provide electricity for portable equipment.
Source: U.S. Dept of Energy